The revolutionary movement KKK (Kataas-taasang Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan) or Katipunan is synonymous with Andres Bonifacio, and to some extent, to Emilio Aguinaldo. However, there were other members of KKK or Katipuneros who valiantly fought for Philippine independence from Spain.
This entry is a celebration of the Katipuneros, the men and women to whom we partly owed our freedom to. The images and descriptions of the Katipuneros are from the exhibit in Museo ng Katipunan in San Juan City, Metro Manila.
For related entries, please read Museo ng Katipunan, Anting-anting (Philippine Amulet) Collection of Museo ng Katipunan, Pinaglabanan Shrine (San Juan City), Ang Tondo ni Bonifacio (Bonifacio’s Tondo), Pagdakila kay Andres Bonifacio and The Katipuneros, Part II.
Here are some of the members of the KKK or Katipuneros (in alphabetical order):
Emilio Aguinaldo (1869 – 1964)
Emilio Aguinaldo joined the Katipunan in March 1895 and used the alias Magdalo; Andres Bonifacio himself led the initiation rites in the Bonifacio residence in Tondo. He was one of the pillars of the revolution in Tondo. He made a historic declaration in October 1896, calling the Filipinos to support the revolution and aspire to create a constitutional republic. He was elected president of the Revolutionary Government at the Tejeros Convention, thus, gaining control of the revolution. His negotiation with the Spanish government at Biak-na-Bato ended the humble beginnings of the Katipunan.
Andres Bonifacio (1863 – 1897)
Andres Bonifacio was an employee of foreign companies, Fressel y Cia and Fleming $ Co. He was a member of the La Liga Filipina and the Lodge Taliba with Sinukuan as his Masonic name. He was one of the founders of the Katipunan and known for his alias Maypagasa. In December 1895, he became the Supreme President of the Katipunan. He led the Philippine revolution and became president of the Sovereign Filipino Nation. On May 10, 1897, he was executed at Maragondon, Cavite by the new leader of the revolution, Emilio Aguinaldo.
Jose Dizon (? – 1897)
Jose Dizon was an engraver and trader. He was one of the founders of Katipunan. He founded the Lodge Taliba in Manila. He was the father of Marina Dizon and uncle of Emilio Jacinto. He was an engraver and trader. He was arrested and charged with conspiracy, rebellion, and sedition by the Spanish authorities and was executed in Bagumbayan on January 11, 1897.
Feliciano Hokson (1868 – 1898)
Feliciano Hokson was a pharmacist and proprietor of a drugstore in Escolta, Manila, where some of the meetings of the Katipunan were held. Together with Jose Alejandrino, he went to Hong Kong to purchase ammunitions using his own money. He returned to the Philippines in May 1897 and received news that Andres Bonifacio was killed; he then organized his own force to support the revolution. He was a known oppositionist of the Truce of Biak-na-Bato (Kasunduan sa Biak-na-Bato) in 1897; accused of sabotaging the peace treaty by Don Pedro Paterno, the negotiator between Spain and the revolutionaries; thus, he was arrested by Gen. Pio del Pilar. He continued the revolution despite the Truce of Biak-na-Bato and recruited new revolutionaries by invoking Andres Bonifacio’s name.
Mariano Llanera (1855 – 1942)
Mariano Llanera led the first and biggest Katipunan uprising in northern Manila, the Siege of Factoria (San Isidro), then the capital of Nueva Ecija, from September 2 to 4, 1896. He led numerous military operations of the Katipunan in the fields and mountains of Central Luzon and Southern Tagalog regions. He was captured by the Americans and deported to Guam from 1901 to 1902.
Emilio Jacinto (1875 – 1899)
Emilio Jacinto joined the Katipunan at the age of 18. He becamse the Secretary of State of the Supreme Council in 1896. On December 12, 1896, he was appointed by Andres Bonifacio as the Commander-in-Chief of the Hilagaan (pertaining to the areas north of Manila, which includes Morong, Bulacan, and Nueva Ecija). He wrote the Association of the Son of the Country: To Those Who Want to Join the Association (ang Kartilya ng Katipunan or the Primer of Katipunan) and other Katipunan writings using the nom-de-plume Pingkian. He died of malaria at the young age of 23.
Restituto Javier (1873 – 1936)
Restituto Javier was a co-worker at Fressel y Cia and a close friend of Andres Bonifacio. In 1892, he was assigned to introduce Katipunan to Mindanao. He was a member of the Supreme Council from 1893 to 1894. He was the leader of the Katipuneros in Sta. Cruz, Manila and known by his alias Mapangahas. He joined the declaration of independence at Pamitinan, in 1895, and in Balintawak in 1896. He was exiled to Peñon de Vélez de la Gomera, Morocco.
Miguel Malvar (1865 – 1911)
Miguel Malvas was a leader of the revolution in Batangas and a supporter of Andres Bonifacio. He was named the Assistant Captain General of Batangas by Bonifacio. He joined the depoertees in Hong Kong after the Truce of Biak-na-Bato. He issued a manifesto at Mt. Makiling declaring himself the Supreme Chief of the Filipino Army when Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo surrendered. He surrendered to the Americans in 1902.
Briccio Pantas (? – 1930)
Briccio Pantas was a member of the La Liga Filipina and later of the Katipunan with the alias of Bungahan. He became a member of the Supreme Council in 1893 and later its Secretary of Justice in 1896. He joined the declaration of revolution against Spain at Balintawak and the general meeting of the Katipunan at the barn of Tandang Sora on August 23 to 24, 1896.
Aguedo del Rosario (1865 – ?)
Aguedo del Rosario was a native of Boac, Marinduque and was one of the founders of the Katipunan. He was a member of the Supreme Council in 1895 and later its Interior Secretary in 1896. He used Tagaisok as his Katipunan name. He was also the Secretary of the Sangguniang Bayang Katagalugan in Tondo, Manila. He was named as Brigadier General to attack Intramuros on August 29, 1896. He surrendered to the Spanish authorities and accepted the offer of amnesty. He fought against the Americans and established the Republic of Katagalugan with Macario Sakay.
Macario Sakay (? – 1907)
Macario Sakay was the President of Sangguniang Bayang Maypagasa, Trozo, Manila, and was known by his alias Pakulin. He helped Emilio Jacinto in distributing Kalayaan, the Katipunan newspaper. He joined the declaration of revolution against Spain in Balintawak. He fought the Spaniards in San Juan del Monte, Novaliches, Balara, Mariquina, and San Mateo under Andres Bonifacio. He remained in the Sierra Madre mountains until the coming of the Americans. There, he established the Republic of the Katagalugan, which he regarded as the rebirth of the Katipunan. Upon surrendering in 1906, he was treacherously arrested by the Americans who tried and executed him in 1907.
Luciano San Miguel (1875 – 1903)
Luciano San Miguel was one of the revolutionary leaders in Batangas. He participated in defending Cavite from a great number of Spanish force in 1897. He continued to struggle for independence until the Philippine-American War in the provinces of Pampanga, Zambales, and Morong. He proclaimed himself the Supreme Commander of the remaining Filipino soldiers after Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo surrendered. He died at the Battle of Koral-na-Bato in Antipolo on March 27, 1903.
Jose Turiano Santiago (1875 – 1942)
Jose Turiano Santiago was a certified accountant and a graduate of the University of Santo Tomas. He was a member of the La Liga Filipina and of the Lodge Taliba with Nereo as his Masonic name. He was the Secretary of the Supreme Council from 1893 to 1895, and known for his alias Tiktik. He was expelled from the Katipunan due to violations. He was imprisoned in 1896, freed in 1897, and rejoined the revolution in 1898 as congressman of Nueva Ecija at the Malolos Congress.
Pio Valenzuela (1869 – 1956)
Pio Valenzuela was a medical practitioner and a graduate of University of Santo Tomas. He was a member of the La Liga Filipina and when it was banned, he joined the Katipunan. He was known by his alias Dimas Ayaran. He served as Surgeon General and as Prosecutor in the Supreme Council in 1895. He was one of the attendees in a conference between the Katipunan and the Japanese Navy about the supply ammunitions to be used for the impending revolution. In 1896, he was assigned to inform Jose Rizal in Dapitan about the Katipunan and the plan to stage a revolution. He was imprisoned and exiled to Barcelona (later to Malaga and to Melilla).